There are basically two types of Koi ponds. The strict, traditional Koi pond construction includes sophisticated and expensive filtration equipment which may include a biological and sand filter as well as an ultraviolet system. The traditional Koi pond also includes an exposed black liner in the bottom of the pond to promote easier cleaning through an installed bottom drain that recirculates through the filters. This type of Koi pond with the exposed black liner presents an unnatural pond appearance.
The second type of Koi pond, as represented by the photos, relies on more natural filtering processes and includes a natural looking stone lined bottom and sides. The filtration basically consists of plants covering approximately 30% of the pond surface, removing fallen leaves from the water and adding beneficial bacteria on a regular basis to the water. The bacteria can be purchased online or from most pond supply businesses. The beneficial bacteria feeds on nitrogen in the water which is the food source of algae, thereby minimizing the food source of the pesty algae. Adding white albino catfish to the pond also contributes to controlling of pond algae. The albino catfish can be purchased online and will need to be replaced with smaller ones every 18 months or so as they grow out of scale with the pond.